GendeRace - General Report 2008
General Report 2008
General Report

 August 2008 


Introduction

 

Europe has a diverse demographic composition which necessitates the construction of a tolerant system for the mutual coexistence of the different individuals and communities represented therein. The EU institutions and the national authorities have created a legal framework to combat the manifestations of discrimination and to discourage discriminatory practices. Different types of organizations, governmental institutions, NGOs and social scientists have conducted studies on discriminatory practices with various objectives: to analyze the reasons for their existence; to suggest new institutional and legal instruments able to combat these practices; and to monitor and control the effective application of the existing legal provisions.

 

The objective of this project is to contribute to an enhanced understanding of the problems related to double discrimination and to the methods for its study and how to deal with the problems. We use the concept of intersectionality to analyse the complexity of the phenomenon of double discrimination based on “race” and gender. The initial surveys in the six states, when subjected to analysis, reveal that many aspects of the gender and race discrimination issue have been addressed by social studies and in the form of legal instruments. 

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Document MSWord 46 pages 392 Ko

Contents
 

 1. Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 3

2. European social fabric in relation to racism and gender discrimination..................................... 6

3. Anti-discrimination international instruments......................................................................... 10

3.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................. 10

3.2 The instruments............................................................................................................. 11

4. European anti-discrimination instruments.............................................................................. 14

4.1 EU Law.................................................................................................................... 14

4.1.1 Basic primary law provisions.................................................................................. 14

4.1.2 Legally binding instruments, especially the following directives:................................. 15

4.1.3 Political instruments................................................................................................ 16

4.1.4 ECJ case-law........................................................................................................ 17

5. European main statistical sources on gender and race discrimination complaints and cases..... 20

6. Current debate and main topics on race and gender discrimination at European level............. 26

6.1 Current debate.............................................................................................................. 27

6.1.1 On the use of ethnic statistics to measure discrimination........................................... 27

6.1.2 On the implementation of positive action with regard to groups in disadvantaged situations: ethnic minorities, immigrants, women......................................................................................................... 27

6.1.3 On gender discrimination........................................................................................ 28

6.1.4 On race discrimination............................................................................................ 29

6.1.5 On double discrimination and intersectionality......................................................... 30

6.2 Science and research.................................................................................................... 32

7. Common trends of EU framework....................................................................................... 35

Bibliography........................................................................................................................... 38

 

Document MSWord 46 pages 392 Ko