GendeRace - Final Report June 2010
Final Report June 2010

Final Report

June 2009 


Executive Summary

As the phenomenon of discrimination entails complex and diverse understandings, so too may we view identities as multiple, often characterised by the intersectional experience. Men and women differ in their experiences of discrimination, as do their reactions to the phenomenon. GendeRace advances the view that social relations based on gender and racialised identities or
ethnicity influence the perception and use of antidiscrimination laws. Whilst both EU and national institutional frameworks may provide numerous responses through action and conflict resolution, the project demonstrates that multiple-discrimination based on racialised identities and gender remains inadequately addressed.

The GendeRace project is funded by the European Commission Seventh Framework programme. It is coordinated by the Université Libré de Bruxelles and the Universitat de Barcelona. Beginning in February 2008 and ending in July 2010, the research has been conducted by six teams in France, Bulgaria, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK.

The GendeRace approach
Building on an exhaustive empirical research, this investigation has employed a wide range of qualitative and quantitative methods including secondary data and literature review, to produce national in-depth reports, conduct semi-structured interviews with experts, and the analysis of a quantitative data set comprising discrimination claims and complaints. However, the weight of its fieldwork is to be found within in-depth interviews with claimants and complainants, conducted from a life course perspective to test the project key theories and hypotheses. In addition, several workshops have been run in each country with stakeholders,
policymakers and representatives from women’s and ethnic minority organisations involving discussion around findings and development of policy recommendations.

New knowledge, new concepts and European added values
This report reflects the project’s comprehensive undertakings to improve understanding of multiple discrimination based on racialised identities and gender, and the advancements that have led us to develop practical tools for better assessment of the effectiveness of policies and practices in the field of antidiscrimination when faced with cases of such discrimination. Our
findings support the need for more policy initiatives addressing gender equality through the implementation of positive action and gender mainstreaming, taking into account specific needs, situations and experiences of different groups, and particularly in addressing women’s multiple identities. A clear message arises from our results - that better awareness of civil rights must be promoted and that existing resources for the making of complaints must be expanded, especially for women. The development of a legal definition and a specific methodology of multiple discrimination could allow an intersectional approach for dealing
with claims/complaints. In addition, we identify a clear need for inclusion of a gender perspective within the treatment of discrimination cases and provision of specific assistance and services according to the needs of the claimant/complainant. The research demonstrates that data collection of complaints on multiple discrimination should be improved to reveal hidden discrimination based on several grounds. Finally, the project asserts the significance that gender equality be enhanced through positive action and gender mainstreaming, with a focus on ethnic minority groups such as Roma or Muslim women.

 

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Contents List


Acknowledgments ..............................................................................................................................................1
Executive Summary ...........................................................................................................................................7
Key findings........................................................................................................................................................8
Recommendations ..............................................................................................................................................9
Part I: Setting the Scene ...............................................................................................................................13
Chapter 1: Rationale, approach and development ...........................................................................................14
1.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................15
1.2 Our specific objectives.....................................................................................................................18
1.3 Methodological approach and framework .......................................................................................19
1.4 Fieldwork illustrations of multiple discrimination.........................................................................20
1.5 Structure of the report .......................................................................................................................27
Chapter 2: National Contexts and common trends of the EU Framework ....................................................29
2.1. Introduction......................................................................................................................................30
2.2. The European social fabric in relation to racism and gender discrimination ...............................32
2.3. International antidiscrimination instruments ..................................................................................37
2.3.1 Introduction ...............................................................................................................................37
2.3.2 The instruments.........................................................................................................................37
2.4. European antidiscrimination instruments .......................................................................................40
2.4.1 EU Law......................................................................................................................................40
2.4.2 Legally binding instruments, especially the following directives: .........................................41
2.4.3 Political instruments ..................................................................................................................42
2.4.4 ECJ case-law.............................................................................................................................43
2.4.5. The Council of Europe’s legal instruments.............................................................................44
2.4.6. Comparative assessment of the national legal framework .....................................................45
2.5. European statistical sources on discrimination complaints and cases ..........................................46
2.6. Current debate on race and gender discrimination at European level...........................................51
2.6.1 Current debate ............................................................................................................................51
2.6.2 Science and research..................................................................................................................55
2.7. Common trends of EU framework ..................................................................................................58
Chapter 3: Methodology of the Investigation..................................................................................................61
3.1. Introduction......................................................................................................................................62
3.2. Comparative Research .....................................................................................................................64
3.2.1 Contested concepts ..................................................................................................................64
3.2.2. Accessing comparable data. .....................................................................................................66
3.2.3 Contextualisation .......................................................................................................................70
3.2.4 Regulatory Ethical Frameworks .............................................................................................70
3.3. Methodology in Practice ..................................................................................................................71
3.3.1. Methodology Workshop Programme ......................................................................................72
3.3.2. Application of Methodological Approaches ...........................................................................75
Part II: Discrimination based on Gender and Racialised Identities across Europe.............................80
Chapter 4: Implementation of European Union Antidiscrimination Legislation: Concepts, Policies and
Debate.....................................................................................................................................................81
4.1. Introduction......................................................................................................................................82
4.1.1. Overview concerning intersectionality in the European context ...........................................82
4.1.2 Some trends with respect to antidiscrimination legislation and intersectionality..................85
4.1.3 Structure of the Review.............................................................................................................90
4.2. Communications and studies commissioned by the EC ................................................................91
4.2.1 Communication of renewed commitment to non-discrimination...........................................91
4.2.2 Studies on multiple discrimination, research needs and good practice ..................................94
4.3. European publications on intersectionality:....................................................................................98
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4.3.1 Multidimensional equality law and beyond intersectionality .................................................98
4.3.2 Weaknesses of EU law confronting cases of multiple discrimination .................................102
4.3.3 Conceptual and methodological contributions to address intersectionality.........................104
4.3.4 An empirical study of the use of antidiscrimination legislation in a gendered perspective112
4.4. Conclusions................................................................................................................................... 114
Chapter 5: The impact of gender and racialised identities on the experience of discrimination................118
5.1. Main objectives ............................................................................................................................. 119
5.2. Methodology applied .................................................................................................................... 119
5.3. Comparative analysis .................................................................................................................... 120
5.3.1 Experience of (multiple) discrimination (from a life course perspective). ..........................121
5.3.2. Context of discrimination.......................................................................................................130
5.4. Socio-demographic data on claimants / complainants................................................................ 135
5.5 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 145
Chapter 6: The use of institutional and non-institutional resources according to gender and racialised
identities ...............................................................................................................................................147
6.1. Main objectives ............................................................................................................................. 148
6.2. Methodology applied .................................................................................................................... 148
6.3. Comparative analysis .................................................................................................................... 149
6.3.1. Use of institutional and non-institutional resources .............................................................150
6.3.2. Events leading to the making of a claim/complaint .............................................................155
6.3.3. Difficulties in use of resources ..............................................................................................156
6.3.4. Influence of perception of legal system on the use of institutional resources ....................157
6.3.5. Observations according to racialised identities.....................................................................158
6.3.6. Observations according to gender .........................................................................................159
6.3.7. Other grounds of discrimination at stake ..............................................................................161
6.3.8. Recommendations on resources by complainants ................................................................162
6.4. Conclusions................................................................................................................................... 164
Chapter 7: The influence of gender and racialised identities on the treatment of discrimination complaints167
7.1. Main objectives ............................................................................................................................. 168
7.2. Methodology applied .................................................................................................................... 168
7.3. Comparative analysis .................................................................................................................... 169
7.3.1. Type: claim / complaint..........................................................................................................169
7.3.2. Services provided....................................................................................................................171
7.3.3. Key actors involved in the process ........................................................................................172
7.3.4. Methods of resolution.............................................................................................................173
7.3.5. Duration of the process...........................................................................................................176
7.3.6. Main remarks as to national contexts ...................................................................................177
7.3.7. Complainants recommendations on the treatment of complaints........................................179
7.4. Brief Conclusion........................................................................................................................... 179
Chapter 8: Capacity of institutional and legal frameworks to handle multiple discrimination..................182
8.1. Introduction................................................................................................................................... 183
8.1.1 Main objectives.......................................................................................................................183
8.1.2. Methodology applied..............................................................................................................184
8.1.3. Comparative analysis..............................................................................................................185
8.2. Variable transposition of the European directives ...................................................................... 186
8.3. Analysis of antidiscrimination policies........................................................................................ 188
8.3.1. Multiple discrimination at the European level ......................................................................188
8.3.2. Multiple discrimination at national level ..............................................................................189
8.3.3. Few initiatives to handle multiple discrimination ................................................................191
8.3.4. Is one ground given more importance? .................................................................................191
8.4. Multiple discrimination and the legal framework ....................................................................... 194
8.4.1 EU legislation and multiple discrimination............................................................................194
8.4.2. The concept of multiple discrimination in national legislation ...........................................197
8.5. Equality bodies: Real capacities, limited effectiveness .............................................................. 200
8.6. Complainants' observations on the handling of multiple discrimination................................... 204
8.7. Complainants' recommendations.................................................................................................. 207
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8.8. Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 209
Chapter 9: Collection, recording and public availability of data on discrimination complaints ................212
9.1. Main objectives ............................................................................................................................. 213
9.2. Methodology applied .................................................................................................................... 213
9.3. Comparative analysis .................................................................................................................... 214
9.3.1. Collection of data and statistics on discrimination claims and complaints.........................214
9.3.2. Uses of data and statistics on discrimination claims and complaints ..................................219
9.3.4. Main remarks as to national contexts ....................................................................................225
9.4. Recommendations on the collection, recording and public availability of data........................ 227
9.4.1. EU level .................................................................................................................................227
9.4.2. National level ..........................................................................................................................228
9.5. Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 230
Part III: Beyond the Analysis: Outcomes and Recommendations ........................................................232
Chapter 10: A proposal towards an EU Glossary..........................................................................................233
10.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 234
10.1.1. Main objectives and purpose of the GendeRace Glossary.................................................234
10.2. Methodology............................................................................................................................... 236
10.3. Historical Context of Terms and Concepts................................................................................ 237
10.3.1. Historical context and processes in different countries......................................................237
10.3.2. The limits of this glossary ....................................................................................................238
10.3.3 The Selection of 15 Key-concepts......................................................................................239
10.4. The Structure of the Glossary..................................................................................................... 239
10.4.1. The social construction of collective identities social identity theory and the social
construction of difference .................................................................................................................240
10.4.2. Forms of discrimination and harassment ...........................................................................245
10.4.3 Concepts that justify discrimination and exclusion.............................................................249
10.4.4 Responses to Discrimination, Prejudice and Stigmatization ..............................................251
10.4.5 Citizenship and the State .......................................................................................................252
Chapter 11: EU and National Policy Recommendations ..............................................................................258
11.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 259
11.2. Conclusions drawn from the findings on the pervasiveness of discrimination for responses to
ethnicised discrimination ..................................................................................................................... 260
11.2.1. The pervasivness of discrimination for both sexes.............................................................260
11.2.2. Intersectionality:the gendered dimension of racialised discrimination.............................263
11.2.3. Gendered differences in the access and use of social and educational resources.............267
11.3.1 Promoting exercise of rights and the distribution and use of resources .............................269
11.3.2. Multiple Discrimination and Intersectionality....................................................................270
11.3.3. Consequences of operationalising multiple discrimination and Intersectionality:.........271
11.3.4. The impact of the multiplicity of grounds on gender equality...........................................273
11.3.5. A need for unified statistics on [multiple] discrimination .................................................275
Chapter 12: Concluding remarks ....................................................................................................................277
Bibliographic references ................................................................................................................................281

  

Document PDF 320 pages 4.650 Ko